Most of the caves in Rwanda are developed from Cenozoic volcanic rocks for instance Manjari which is 1.660 m and Nyiragihima in Ruhengeri which 1.116 m (Northern Province). There are in total 52 surveyed caves in the province with 15.2 km cave passages. The longest cave of Rwanda is called "Ubuvumo Bwibihonga" a multi-level system of parallel lava tubes with 4.530 m length. The commonly visited cave is called Musanze cave which is 2 km long; it lies in the volcanic region where lava flow layers dating from 65 million years ago to today have created the Albertine Rift Valley. The cave has 31 entrances, most being roof collapses. It is formed from lava basaltic layers from the Bisoke and Sabyinyo volcanoes. The cave entrance is vast, exceeding 10 km and it is well proportionate with several side passages leading off from the main cave. Bat roots are a feature of the cave and the collapses create a truly incredible array of coloured shafts of light.
These huge caves, 2km from the town centre along the road to Gisenyi (and also accessible from the road to Kinigi) were created when different lava flows joined to create the Albertine Rift Valley. Bat roosts are a significant feature of the caves, as are huge roof collapses that create vast arrays of coloured light shafts.The 1.25 mile long cave is home to a large bat colony.
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